Determining the Unemployment Rate in Indonesia during the COVID-19 Pandemic


  • Dina Intan Fitria Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Indonesia
  • Suriani Suriani Department of Economics, Faculty of Economic and Business, Universitas Syiah Kuala
  • Sartiyah Sartiyah Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Indonesia



Unemployment, COVID-19 pandemic, Logit


Unemployment is one of Indonesia's main economic development problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to determine the chances of a person becoming unemployed in Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic, which individual and household characteristics influence. The data were collected from National Labour Force Survey (SAKERNAS) in August 2020. The data were analysed using a logistic regression model. The result proved that there was a significant opportunity between individual characteristics, namely age, gender, household head status, marital status, education level, training, work experience, and household characteristics, namely the number of household members, against unemployment. While the location of the household is not significant because this research was only conducted in the city centre so that with the same characteristics of the city in each region, the labour force living in the city is less likely to become unemployed. The coefficient value showed that women are more likely to become unemployed. Thus, the government is expected to focus on providing facilities to increase the human capital of the young female workforce, such as creating job training programs and mastering information and technology, given the changes in the digital age.


Aden, I. (2017). Impact Of Education On Unemployment Evidence From Canada. Major Paper Presented to the Department of Economics of the University of Ottawa, 38(2), 339–343.

Adriani, D., & Yustini, T. (2021). Anticipating the Demographic Bonus from the Perspective of Human Capital in Indonesia. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science, 10(6), 141–152.

Agustiana, L. E. (2020). Pengaruh Wabah Covid-19 Terhadap Tingkat Pengangguran Terbuka Pada Sektor Terdampak Di Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmu Manajemen Terapan, 1(6), 546–556.

Akhtar Gul, S. H., Ali, H., & Zahra, F. (2020). COVID-19 Impact on Poverty and Unemployment Levels: A Case Pakistan. Journal of Research and Reviews in Social Sciences Pakistan, 3(2), 879–893.

Alam, M. M., Fawzi, A. M., Islam, M. M., & Said, J. (2021). Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic on National Security Issues: Indonesia as a Case Study. Security Journal, s41284, 1–20.

Amien, N. N. (2020). The Role of Economic Growth in the Reduction and Increasing of Unemployment: A Perspective Analysis. Jurnal Ilmiah Manajemen, Ekonomi & Akuntansi, 4(2), 572–588.

Apriani, Y., Mafra, R., & Oktaviani, W. A. (2020). Pembuatan Video Metode Tangkap Layar sebagai Media Pembelajaran Daring di Masa Pandemi Covid-19. JMM (Jurnal Masyarakat Mandiri), 4(6), 1049–1057.

Ayhan, F., & Bursa, N. (2019). Unemployment and Crime Nexus in European Union Countries: A Panel Data Analysis. Yönetim Bilimleri Dergisi, 17(34), 465–484.

Baah-Boateng, W. (2015). Unemployment in Ghana: a Cross Sectional Analysis from Demand and Supply Perspectives. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 6(4), 402–415.

Bell, D. N. F., & Blanchflower, D. G. (2020). US And UK Labour Markets Before And During The Covid-19 Crash. National Institute Economic Review, 252, R52–R69.

Benjamin, E. J., Muntner, P., Alonso, A., Bittencourt, M. S., Callaway, C. W., Carson, A. P., Chamberlain, A. M., Chang, A. R., Cheng, S., & Das, S. R. (2019). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 139(10), e56–e528.

Berhe, M. W. (2021). Empirical Analysis of Urban Youth Unemployment in Ethiopia. African Development Review, 33(1), 104–116.

Brooks, M. M., Mueller, J. T., & Thiede, B. C. (2021). Rural-Urban Differences in the Labor-Force Impacts of COVID-19 in the United States. Socius, 7.

Caliendo, M., & Schmidl, R. (2016). Youth Unemployment and Active Labor Market Policies in Europe. IZA Journal of Labor Policy, 5(1), 1.

Capps, R., Batalova, J., & Gelatt, J. (2020). COVID-19 and Unemployment: Assessing the Early Fallout for Immigrants and Other U.S. Workers.

Corbacho, A., Garcia‐Escribano, M., & Inchauste, G. (2007). Argentina: macroeconomic crisis and household vulnerability. Review of Development Economics, 11(1), 92–106.

Daminov, A., Doniyorov, B., Doniyorova, M., Kosimov, D., Sultonbekova, Z., & Nalibaev, A. (2021). Experimental determination of the wave height of the base and yarns in the tissue and a new method for measuring the tissue thickness without contact. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 939(1), 12077.

Dawood, T. C., Pratama, H., Masbar, R., & Effendi, R. (2019). Does financial inclusion alleviate household poverty? Empirical evidence from Indonesia. Economics & Sociology, 12(2), 235–252.

Dereje, M. (2018). Determinants of Urban Youth Unemployment; Evidence from East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia Aynalem Shita. International Journal of Economic Development, 11(2), 245–265.

Eichhorst, W., & Rinne, U. (2015). An Assessment of the Youth Employment Inventory and Implications for Germany’s Development Policy.

Eshetu, F., Haji, J., Ketema, M., & Mehare, A. (2022). Determinants of Rural Multidimensional Poverty of Households in Southern Ethiopia. Cogent Social Sciences, 8(1), 2123084.

Fernández-Marín, R., Fernandes, S. C. M., Sánchez, M. Á. A., & Labidi, J. (2022). Halochromic and antioxidant capacity of smart films of chitosan/chitin nanocrystals with curcuma oil and anthocyanins. Food Hydrocolloids, 123, 107119.

Gezici, A., & Ozay, O. (2020). An intersectional analysis of COVID-19 unemployment. Journal of Economics, Race, and Policy, 3(4), 270–281.

Grashuis, J. (2021). Self-employment duration during the COVID-19 pandemic: A competing risk analysis. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 15, e00241.

Hoang, T. T. A., & Knabe, A. (2021). Time Use, Unemployment, and Well-Being: An Empirical Analysis Using British Time-Use Data. Journal of Happiness Studies, 22(6), 2525–2548.

Holmes, E. A., O’Connor, R. C., Perry, V. H., Tracey, I., Wessely, S., Arseneault, L., Ballard, C., Christensen, H., Silver, R. C., & Everall, I. (2020). Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(6), 547–560.

Indayani, S., & Hartono, B. (2020). Analisis Pengangguran dan Pertumbuhan Ekonomi sebagai Akibat Pandemi Covid-19. Jurnal Perspektif, 18(2), 201–208.

International Labour Office. (2004). Global Employment Trends for Youth 2004. ILO.

International Labour Organization. (2020). ILO Monitor: COVID-19 and the World of Work. In Updated Estimates and Analysis. Int Labour Organ. International Labour Organization.

Isazadeh, S., Naeini, H., & Gholipoor, A. (2021). Determinants of Unemployment Duration in Iran.

Jalil, F. A., & Kasnelly, S. (2019). Meningkatnya Angka Pengangguran Di Tengah Pandemi (Covid-19). Al Mizan: Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah, 3, 45–60.

Kirika, J. M. (2014). The Urban-Rural Unemployment Gap in Kenya. University of Nairobi.

Lai, H., Khan, Y. A., Thaljaoui, A., Chammam, W., & Abbas, S. Z. (2021). COVID-19 pandemic and unemployment rate: A hybrid unemployment rate prediction approach for developed and developing countries of Asia. Soft Computing, 1–16.

Luppi, F., Rosina, A., & Sironi, E. (2021). On the changes of the intention to leave the parental home during the COVID-19 pandemic: A comparison among five European countries. Genus, 77(1), 1–23.

Maryati, S. (2015). Dinamika Pengangguran Terdidik: Tantangan Menuju Bonus Demografi di Indonesia. Economica, 3(2), 124–136.

Mursalina, M., Masbar, R., & Suriani, S. (2022). Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Economic Growth of the Tourism Sector in Indonesia. International Journal of Quantitative Research and Modeling, 3(1), 18–28.

Nordin, M., & Almén, D. (2017). Long-term unemployment and violent crime. Empirical Economics, 52(1), 1–29.

Nurfitriani, N., & Hartarto, R. B. (2018). Does More Spending on Education Matter to Human Capital Formation? Study Case of Bengkulu Province, Indonesia. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan Dan Administrasi Publik), 22(1), 63.

Olurinola, I. O. P., & Fadayomi, T. (2013). Youth Labour Market outcomes in Nigeria: Evidence from National Labour Market Survey. Covenant Journal of Business and Social Sciences.

Oswald-Egg, M. E., & Renold, U. (2021). No experience, no employment: The effect of vocational education and training work experience on labour market outcomes after higher education. Economics of Education Review, 80, 102065.

Polonyankina, T. (2018). Does immigrant status matter in spanish labour market? Logit model application. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1978(July).

Pramana, S., Paramartha, D. Y., Ermawan, G. Y., Deli, N. F., & Srimulyani, W. (2022). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on tourism in Indonesia. Current Issues in Tourism, 25(15), 2422–2442.

Queneau, H., & Sen, A. (2012). On the structure of US unemployment disaggregated by race, ethnicity, and gender. Economics Letters, 117(1), 91–95.

Rizky, O., Fajar, M., Prasetyo, O. R., & Nonalisa, S. (2020). Forecasting Unemployment Rate in the Time of COVID-19 Pandemic Using Google Trends Data (Case of Indonesia). Munich Personal RePEc Archive, 105042.

Rusdianti, F. A. (2019). Hubungan Tingkat Ketahanan Keluarga dengan Persepsi Nilai Anak pada Ibu-ibu di Desa Gambiran, Kecamatan Mojoagung, Kabupaten Jombang. Universitas Brawijaya.

Salam, T. D. O., Majid, M. S. A., Dawood, T. C., & Suriani. (2021). The Effect of Gender and Household Education Expenditure in Indonesia. International Journal of Business, Economics and Social Development, 2(4), 184–192.

Salauddin, M., Rana, S. M. S., Rahman, M. T., Sharifuzzaman, M., Maharjan, P., Bhatta, T., Cho, H., Lee, S. H., Park, C., & Shrestha, K. (2022). Fabric‐assisted MXene/silicone nanocomposite‐based triboelectric nanogenerators for self‐powered sensors and wearable electronics. Advanced Functional Materials, 32(5), 2107143.

Samosir, O. B., & Rajagukguk, W. (2017). Demographic and Competitiveness Acceleration and Government Sustainable Advantage in Indonesia. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 7(4), 113–118.

Tcherneva, P. R. (2022). Decommodifying work: The power of a job guarantee. In Democratize Work (pp. 85–90). University of Chicago Press.

Ulfa, M., Jamal, A., & Majid, M. S. A. (2020). Portrait of Gender Economic Inequality in Indonesia.

Un, C. A., & Asakawa, K. (2015). Types of R&D collaborations and process innovation: The benefit of collaborating upstream in the knowledge chain. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 32(1), 138–153.

Verick, S., & Islam, I. (2010). The great recession of 2008-2009: causes, consequences and policy responses. Consequences and Policy Responses.

Verico, K. (2021). Global Pandemic 2020: Indonesia’s Output Gap and Middle-Income Trap Scenario. LPEM, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Indonesia.

Wong, S., Ghafar, N. A., Ngadi, N., Razmi, F. A., Inuwa, I. M., Mat, R., & Amin, N. A. S. (2020). Effective removal of anionic textile dyes using adsorbent synthesized from coffee waste. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1–13.

Zakki, N., & Sayyida, S. (2016). Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pendapatan dan kesejahteraan petani garam rakyat kawasan pesisir Kalianget. Performance: Jurnal Bisnis & Akuntansi, 6(1), 66–85.




How to Cite

Fitria, D. I., Suriani, S., & Sartiyah, S. (2022). Determining the Unemployment Rate in Indonesia during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Finance, Economics and Business, 1(3), 177–188.